Documentation Styles

MLA style documentation

The MLA, or Modern Language Association, style of citing sources within a paper is used primarily by writers in the humanities (English, foreign language, history, philosophy, and religion). When using the MLA style of documentation, cite sources used within your text by placing the last name of the author(s) and the corresponding page number(s) (if available) in parentheses after a direct or an indirect quote (Jones 3). It is not necessary to place a comma between the last name of the author and the page number, nor is it necessary to use “p.” etc. before the page number. If the author is unknown, place the title of the document in parentheses instead (How to Cite Internet Sources 3). In addition to citing sources within your paper in this manner, you need to create a works cited page which lists all of the publication information for the sources you used in alphabetical order.

Additional Information:
MLA Style (provided by Purdue University Online Writing Lab)

APA style documentation

The APA, or American Psychological Association, style of documentation is used primarily by writers in the social sciences (economics, political science, psychology, sociology, and anthropology). When using the APA style to document sources, place the last name of the author(s) in parentheses with the year of publication (Jones, 1996) after both direct and indirect quotes. Place a comma between the author’s last name and the year. Page numbers should also be included after the year of publication for direct quotes, although they are optional for indirect quotes (Jones, 1996, p. 28). Place a comma between the year and the page number. If the author of the document you are citing is not known, replace the author’s last name with the title of the document (“The Internet as a Research Tool,” 1997, p. 4). In addition to citing sources within your paper in this manner, you need to create a works cited page which lists all of the publication information for the sources you used in alphabetical order.

Additional information:
APA Style (provided by the American Psychological Association)
APA Style (provided by Purdue University Online Writing Lab)

Turabian style documentation

The Turabian, or Chicago, style of documentation incorporates the use of either endnotes or footnotes. When using the Turabian style of documentation to cite sources, place a superscript number after each quotation, paraphrase, or summary.1 Citations are numbered in order throughout your paper, and each citation must be accompanied by a numbered note containing publication information about the source you are using. This information can be contained in either endnotes at the end of your paper on a separate page or in footnotes at the bottom of the page within your paper.

Although the endnotes or footnotes in your paper contain all of the publication information necessary to verify or retrieve your citation, you may also include a bibliography (an alphabetized list of sources used) at the end of your paper. Ask your professor if he or she would like both endnotes or footnotes and a bibliography if you are unsure about whether to include one with your paper. If you do include a bibliography with your paper, it will differ from your endnotes or footnotes in three ways: the authors’ names are inverted (the last name of the author is first, followed by the first name), the elements of entries are separated by periods, and the first line of each entry is flush with the left margin, with subsequent lines indented five spaces.

Additional Information:
Turabian Style (The University of Chicago Press)